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Le rôle des communautés de pratique dans le processus de gestion des connaissances dans les entreprises innovantes : une étude de cas par comparaison intersites

In the current economic context marked by the development of information and communications technology and the race for innovation, knowledge management (KM) has become the most important concern of any business B. Masson 1997 ). Indeed, the growing interest in innovation projects requires knowledge exchange increasingly rapid and complex in networks of actors. This places of interest are not the only dimension of innovation management but more knowledge management. Most models and tools developed GC are derived from modern information systems, they are interested in the role of production structures, circulation and storage of information. However, be limited to the integration of such systems can not be a relevant and effective way of managing innovation. Even the most sophisticated information systems (expert systems) and methods of capitalization (or feedback) the more formalized can not address the challenges of innovation. Indeed, the innovation management uses representations and practices of actors that seem close enough issues of management skills (C. Paraponaris, 2002). But this approach involves many ways to look at knowledge management (KM) for innovation: the systemic model (JL Le Moigne, 1990) focused on capitalizing and circulation of knowledge; the socio-cognitive model (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995) highlights the collective creation of meaning within social groups involved in the innovation process; the pragmatic model (E. Wenger, 1998) emphasizes the collective practices as a source of creation of new knowledge. The development of the project management is a perfect example to create social bonds between members of the company (Mr. Ferrary, 2004). These three approaches can consider knowledge management systems that are focused solely on the tools, but also on the organization and practices. It is in this perspective that we have the CP as a conceptual framework to analyze in detail the GC in a context of innovation. This choice is explained by the fact that, firstly, the GC involves the practices of the actors involved in the innovation process. The knowledge and learning within innovative companies are actually structured by the problems encountered in practice. Moreover, GC covers a strategy that develops into “network” in part outside the borders of the company. Thus, the approach of communities of practice (CP) appears as a relevant tool for KM in the sense that it allows to take into account local practices of innovation. [googletranslate_en]