Measuring economic exclusion for racialized minorities, immigrants and women in Canada: Results from 2000 and 2010
In this article, the authors examine patterns of economic exclusion in Canada’s labor market in 2000 and 2010. Using Canada’s Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics data, the authors devise a unique Economic Exclusion Index to capture disparities in income, employment precarity, and wealth. The authors find evidence of persistent disadvantage tied to immigrant status, race, and gender in Canada’s labor market; specifically, individuals identified as Black, South Asian and Arab, as well as recent immigrants and women, fare worst. The authors conclude that there is a need for structural changes that enable disadvantaged groups to move toward economic inclusion in Canada’s labor market.