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Introduction : Emploi, travail et compétences à l’épreuve du numérique

Digital was invited to work. The development of the Internet, big data, connected objects, mobile devices and other digital technologies has opened the door to multiple transformations, if they upset the life and consumption, have not spared the job. But how does the work assigned? A burgeoning literature does not fail to emphasize the use of digital technologies has an impact on employment, improving some aspects and by weakening others. It emerges very contrasting evolution scenarios. They oscillate between the announcement of a substitution of man by digital technology often related to the figure of the robot and the announcement of reconstructions under the process of “creative destruction” theorized by Schumpeter, which would lead to the disappearance some jobs and industries in favor of new (Bomsel and Le Blanc, 2000; Bidet-Mayer, 2016). Similarly, the development of digital questioned the effects of the development of new technologies on qualifications or on the interdependence between technology and skills (Bailey et al., 2010). The approaches to “skill biased technological change” tend to emphasize a moving job creation up to the detriment of low and medium-skilled activities, at the risk of appearing a “break numbered America” ​​(Gualtieri, 2015 ). [googletranslate_en]