Thème 1: L’avenir du travail: Des compétences pour l’économie moderne
In this paper, we highlight some issues related to the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the future of work. First, we recognize the progress based on AI technologies and the anisotropy of the progress made in various areas of human activities. Driven by technological advances and massive investments, AI creates asymmetries that transform the labor market both in terms of content and in terms of geographical location.
We examine the technological aspects in depth, because it often happens that the common perception of the AI does not match the actual level of technical preparation. This is usually the case with any new technology. We dedicate a section to the analysis of the main limitations of the current IA, including the need for large amounts of data annotated and a massive computing power and the effort required to apply AI to each new problem or domain. We describe the potential of the technology of AI and its potential application areas (sometimes real), ranging from data analysis to robotics, through engineering, genetics, changes analysis climate, etc.
Regarding the impact on the labor market, it is clear that the AI is already bringing tangible benefits to certain companies and improves service levels for consumers. Furthermore, there is no single interpretation of how things will evolve. Predicting the spread of technology, and in particular its impact depends on a series of external factors, including new technological advances to overcome existing limitations, but also political and economic factors (regulation, availability of funds , cost / benefit aspects, etc.). Our analysis of the risks and benefits of AI for work and employment based on the assumption that, in most contexts, we must take into account the challenges of achieving genuine complementarity between man and machine through organizational choices and lifelong learning. [googletranslate_en]