No evidence of learning, in this case, must be provided. […]competency assessment and meeting regulatory continuing education requirements have often been reduced to achieving compliance rather than actual learning. In education, a shockingly small number of gatekeepers determine what counts, and allowing these bottlenecks to remain will hold back the full promise of advances in access. […]expanding and diversifying sources and mechanisms for credentialing will also be an important part of efforts to democratize education. Graham T. McMahon: In an information age, the currency of education is not information. Because we can look up guidelines more quickly than someone can tell them to us, the currency of education for clinicians now includes problem-solving, skill development, wisdom, and insight. […]given the incredible (and incredibly expensive) R&D effort that will be needed to develop and scale personalized learning, it is unrealistic to assume that it will happen without a strong market contribution. […]what is needed is a hybrid model of adoption that makes a distinction between public utility aspects of the system (e.g., universal access to underlying infrastructure, data, and other relevant systems) and aspects of the system where we want and expect market-based innovations to flourish.