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Embracing the sobering reality of technological influences on jobs, employment and human resource development: A systematic literature review

Purpose: This paper aims to provide a sobering and unique view of technological unemployment and job changes by identifying endangered jobs and skills, as well as the essential up-skills critical to employees’ performance, which cannot be replaced by technology. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review, used because it is replicable, transparent, and scientific, was implemented to examine the current and future technological influences on employment, job outlook, work structure, and human resource development (HRD)., Findings: The study concludes that HRD professionals should promptly reexamine their social responsibility relative to the technological influence on workers by focusing developmental efforts on employees’ human skills while assisting workers’ transition to a skill-polarized workplace. HRD professionals should play a major role in facilitating employees’ coexistence with robots in the workplace. Originality/value: While recognizing the valuable contributions of previous researchers with similar concerns, this comprehensive review provides an amalgamated and updated view, which reveals the escalating and combined challenges of a skill-polarized workplace, a tendency of technological unemployment for those positioned in middle-skill jobs, and an increased demand for employees with a higher level of human skills.