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Beyond belonging and identification: A theory of inclusive practices and why they work

Despite evidence of the value of diversity in workplaces, and considerable research on particular areas of diversity management practice, there is less knowledge to date of how, why, and when such practices lead to inclusion. This paper suggests four areas in which embedded, structural practices together constitute inclusion and discusses mechanisms that may render these operative and effective, namely voice, felt security, and felt fairness. It argues that a practice-based theory of inclusion has the potential to augment current understandings of inclusion by extending beyond the individual level of analysis, to conceptualize inclusion as embedded in organizational cultures, norms and structures, produced and reproduced through the choices and practices of organizational actors.