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This report analyzes proficiency in literacy, numeracy, and PS-TRE of recent and established immigrants in Canada compared to the Canadian-born by various sociodemographic characteristics and examines the relationships between proficiency in each of the three skill domains and some key sociodemographic and immigration-related characteristics. First, average proficiency scores and distributions of proficiency levels in literacy, numeracy, and PS-TRE of recent and established immigrants and the Canadian-born aged 16–65 are compared at the national level and for Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia, and the Prairies region where sample sizes are sufficient to allow reliable estimation.6 Second, the skills profile of immigrants by key relevant sociodemographic and immigration-related characteristics—age, gender, educational attainment, country of education, mother tongue, and official-language proficiency—are presented and compared with their Canadian-born counterparts. Finally, multivariate analysis is employed to identify key factors accounting for the skill gaps between the Canadian-born and immigrants, and among immigrants with different characteristics.