One might think that inequality and poverty are the proper domain of social policy, not “economic and business policy,” this year’s Action Canada fellowship theme. Canadians are trained to think about economic and social policy as separate fields. Indeed, when the Action Canada Task Force on Inequality, Poverty, and the Knowledge-Based Economy (the “Task Force”) first met to discuss our project, we had a much narrower view of “economic and business policy” than we do today. The Task Force now considers economic and social policy to be inextricably linked; in fact, we believe that addressing what are traditionally considered social issues is crucial to Canada’s long-term economic prosperity. The evolution of the Task Force’s thinking itself demonstrates why inequality and poverty are important from an economic standpoint.