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Proposal for a version of MWMS across Mediterranean countries: A validation study in Greece, Italy, and Spain

Self-determination theory introduces a multidimensional view of motivation and explains how the different types of motivation can be promoted or hindered. Following Gagné et al. (2014), the purpose of this study was to create an abbreviated version of the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale (MWMS) and to study the psychometric properties of the instrument using data from 1,035 workers from three Mediterranean countries (Greece, Italy, and Spain). Factorial analyses indicated that the 18-item scale has the same factor structure across the three Mediterranean languages, reflecting common cultural idiosyncrasies and influences. Convergent and discriminant validity indicated that intrinsic and integrated forms of autonomous motivation had a positive relationship with job satisfaction, affective and normative commitment, prosocial behavior, perceived organizational support, job autonomy, and leader-member exchange. Controlled forms of motivation (e.g., social and material) were unrelated or negatively related to most of the variables examined, with the exception of continuance commitment (positive association). Lastly, amotivation was negatively related to all employee-related variables, except for continuance commitment. Practical implications and suggestions for the development of future research based on self-determination theory are discussed.