Measuring R&D – in a way that makes the data internationally comparable – is not an easy task; that’s why the OECD Frascati Manual was first developed in 1963. Nowadays, this international standard is the basis of R&D statistics in OECD countries and beyond. It also underpins the definition of R&D used in accounting standards and in the UN System of National Accounts. The Frascati definition of R&D is widely used for policy purposes, too. The OECD National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators (NESTI) recently oversaw the 6th revision of the Frascati Manual – improving its clarity and enhancing its relevance through greater compatibility with other statistics and new statistical guidance on R&D tax incentives and globalisation.