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Innovation disruptive et naissance d’un écosystème : voyage aux origines de l’internet

From a historical case study, this paper explores the conditions for the emergence of the first “business ecosystem” the ecosystem of information and communications technology (ICT). The case concerns the proposed deployment of the first communication network and sharing digital resources among geographically remote computers: ARPANET (for “ARPA NETwork”). Unlike the majority of the works that consider business ecosystems are the result of the strategic action of “pivots firms”, defended the hypothesis in this paper is that the ICT ecosystem is born of a technological breakthrough scope by a community of public and private organizations, including researchers, large commercial firms being relegated to the periphery. [googletranslate_en]