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Gig-based working arrangements: Business patterns, labor-management practices, and regulations

This paper draws on previous relevant findings (e.g., Graham, Hjorth, and Lehdonvirta, 2017; Ravenelle, 2017; Sargeant, 2017). Using data from OECD, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, FRED, Pew Research Center, and BloombergView, we performed analyses and made estimates regarding change in self-employment as share of total employment, self-employment rate by level of education, the proportion of gig platform workers who use online job/task platforms, workers by category in the freelance economy, and breakdown of services provided by gig workers, and clarify that numerous sharing economy services may provide workers a manner to oppose declining wages and workplace volatility.