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Employed and engaged: An overview of the 10,000 phds project.

KEY POINTS: Principal applicants in the skilled worker category, both men and women, had better labour outcomes than immigrants who entered under other immigration classes. They were more likely to be employed, and be working in their area of training/education, had taken less time to find their first job, had shorter jobless spells and earned more than other groups. Refugees, both men and women, faced more difficulties even four years after arrival. They were more likely to have high unemployment rates, more jobless spells, longer time taken to secure their first job in Canada, and lower earnings. Immigrant men had overall better labour outcomes than immigrant women, including higher labour force participation rates. Within their first four years in Canada, all immigrants had higher unemployment rates than the working population as a whole, regardless of immigration class.