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Changing income inequality: A distributional paradigm in Canada

This paper examines the major changes in income inequality in Canada since the 1970s and collects them as a distributional paradigm for Canada. It focuses on labour market changes in terms of shares of workers and earnings shares for lower earners, middle- class workers and higher earners in a flexible general framework. Polarization of full-time workers, loss of middle-class earnings share and increase in a higher earnings gap are highlighted. Changing returns to human capital, role of demographics and cohort effects and declining labour share are examined. The paper also reviews evidence of changing economic mobility and estimating the role of inequality of opportunity.