The European defence industry is a strategic sector of the EU economy, not only because of its contribution to EU security, but also because of its importance in terms of employment, value added and exports, because of its contribution to regional development, and because of its contribution to a number of other industries, notably through innovation. Yet, today, the industry is facing important challenges: like other industrial sectors, the defence industry is required to deliver increased efficiency in order to provide value for money to its customers and, at the same time, protect its shareholders’ interests. At the same time, demand is increasingly constrained by national defence budgets, whilst competition is growing at world level. Restructuring has become unavoidable. To minimise the negative consequences of restructuring in the social sphere, anticipation is essential – and in particular anticipation of skills needs.